San Francisco
  “San Francisco, open your Golden Gate,” sang the girl in the theatre. She never1 finished her song. That date was 18th April, 1906. The earth shook and the roof suddenly divided, buildings crashed2 to the ground and people rushed out into the streets. The dreadful earthquake destroyed the city that had grown up when men discovered gold in the deserts of California.3 But today the streets of San Francisco stretch over more than forty steep hills, rising like huge cliffs above the blue waters of the Pacific Ocean.
  The best way to see this splendid city, where Spanish people were the first to make their homes, is to take one of the old cable cars which run along the nine main avenues. Fares are cheap they have not risen I’m told for almost a hundred years.4
  You leave5 the palm trees in Union Square --- the heart of San Francisco --- and from the shop signs and the faces around you, you will notice that in the city live people from many nations --- Austrians, Italians, Chinese and others6 --- giving each part a special character. More Chinese live in China Town than in any other part of the world outside China.7 Here, with Chinese restaurants, Chinese post-boxes, and even odd telephone-boxes that look like pagodas, it is easy8 to feel you are in China itself.
  Fisherman’s Wharf, a place all foreigners want to see, is at the end of the ride. You get out, pause perhaps to help the other travelers to swing the cable car on its turntable (a city custom), and then set out to find a table in one of9 the gay little restaurants beside the harbor. As you enjoy the fresh Pacific seafood you can admire the bright red paint of the Golden Gate Bridge in the harbor and watch the traffic crossing beneath the tall towers on its way to the pretty village of Tiberon .
  The Elysee Palace1 in France enjoys2 equal popularity in the world with the Buckingham Palace in the United Kingdom, the Kremlin in Russia as well as the White House in the U.S.A. It is the residence of the president of the French Republic and the symbol of the supreme authority in France.
  The Elysee Palace, with,000 square meters, is at3 the eastern end of the Champs Elysee in3 the bustling city of Paris proper and backed by a large and tranquil garden of more than twenty thousand square meters. Its main building, quite handsome and graceful, is a 2-story classical stone architecture of European style, flanked by two side buildings facing each other and with an extensive rectangular courtyard in the middle. There are altogether 369 halls and rooms of different size.3 an area of 11
  The Elysee Palace, built in 1718, has a long history of closing to 300 years to date. This house was at first a private residence of a count named d’Evreau, hence it was called Hotel d’Evreau. It had later gone through many vicissitudes and its owners had been changed for many times4, but all the dwellers in it were distinguished personages and high officials. 5 The house was renamed Bonaparte Mansion when6 it was owned by Louis XV and Louis XVI successively when6 they acted as emperors. Napoleon I signed his act of abdication here when6 he had suffered crushing defeat in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Napoleon III moved in the Mansion in 1848 when6 he was elected president, and the house became a Royal Palace when6 he proclaimed himself as emperor. The Third French Republic issued a decree in 1873, designating officially the Elysee Palace as the residence of president of the French Republic . Over the hundred odd years since then, almost all the presidents of the French Republic worked and lived there. Starting from 1989, the Elysee Palace is open to the public every year in September on the French Castles Day.
  The Grand Canyon
  A famous American John Muir said in 1898: “The Grand Canyon … as unearthly in the color and grandeur and quantity of its architecture as if you had found it after death on some other star.”
  Like Muir, those of us who stand along the rim are prompted to wonder about the unearthliness and the forces that created and are still changing this place.
  After more than 100 years of studies, many things are still obscure. Today visitors come by the thousands - the great and simple of the earth - all in a spirit of marvel. Travelers come from every state of the Union, from every country in Europe and Asia, pilgrims to a shrine that is the same as the creed.
  From the depths of the canyon comes welling silence. Seldom can you hear the roar of the river. For all sounds are swallowed in this gulf of space. ‘It makes one want to murmur.’ A woman once whispered to her companion. This silence is not the silence of death; rather, it is a presence. It is like a great piece of music. But music made of man works up to a climax and ceases; the Grand Canyon is all climax, a chord echoing into eternity.
  Perhaps the most spectacular feature of the Grand Canyon, its Redwall limestone cliff, stands about half way up the chasm and is practically vertical. Its average height is 550 feet — almost exactly that of the Washington Monument. Though it is actually gray-blue limestone, the surface of the cliff has been stained to a sunset hue by iron salts washing out of the rocks. Above the Redwall come alternating layers of red sandstone and shale 1,000 feet thick, then comes the next pale-blue layer. The topmost layers are a yellowish limestone.
  Now, visitors to the South Rim alone may number 18,000 in a single day. Some of that number will travel by mule train down Bright Angel Trail to the canyon’s floor, cross the raging river by a suspension bridge and amount to the North Rim.
  Though the two rims face each other across only 12 miles, it is a journey of 214 miles by car from one to the other. Nor can you visit the North Rim except in summer; some 1,200 feet higher than the South Rim, it is snow covered much of the year except in July and August.
  But there is no day that you may not visit the South Rim and find the sun warm on your face and the air perfumed with the incense of smoke from an Indian hearth. The Grand Canyon is an unearthly sight. No wonder an American writer and journalist said, “I came here an atheist, and departed a devout believer.”
  Thinking about going off the beaten path1 for your next vacation? If so, you might be one of the many people who2 are enjoying a relatively new mode of travel known as ecotourism. As the name implies, ecotourism focuses on conserving the ecology and natural heritage of tourist destinations. In addition, ecotourism features indigenous cultures and promotes ways for local communities3 to control and maintain their resources.
  In the past, vacationers usually spent their time4 staying at luxury hotels and visiting famous landmarks5 and museums in cities such as New York, Paris and Tokyo. Others preferred to relax on the beautiful beaches of Hawaii or the deck of a cruise ship in the sunny Caribbean. 6 There was little interaction with the local people and overcrowding often spoiled the natural beauty of popular vacation spots. In addition, excessive commercialization turned many places into tourist traps.
  Since the early 1980s, however, adventure-oriented and nature-based vacation activities have become increasingly popular. Developing alongside a global rise in environmental consciousness and respect for cultural diversity, ecotourism is the one of the fastest growing sectors7 of the travel and tourism industry. Mountain climbing in the Himalayas roughing it8 on a wilderness expedition trekking in the Amazon rainforest and whale watching on the high seas9 are attractive alternatives to the urban comforts of five-star hotels and classy restaurants. 10
  But ecotourism means more than just traveling to remote destinations. The concept also emphasizes educating visitors about local people, customs and cultural heritage. Perhaps most importantly, it involves a methodical approach to tourism that minimizes the negative impact on natural habitats and gives host communities a leading role in decision-making processes, along with the lion’s share11 of economic benefits.
  As tourism might be the largest industry in the world, sustainable growth strategies should be adopted to ensure that our natural and cultural heritage is preserved for the enjoyment and benefit of future generations.
  Ecotourism a Myth
  The United Nations has declared the year 2002 as the International Year of Ecotourism. The goals of this designation are lofty and the UN hopes to make environmental protection an integral part of tourism development. But the idea that tourism can be sustainable at all may be a myth. It may not be possible for struggling nations around the world to resist compromising their environment and their culture to lure affluent foreigners and their dollars.
  Many different organizations, governments, and businesses have defined ecotourism, but I especially like the definition adopted by the Estonian Ecotourism Association. This definition says, "Ecotourism is responsible travel, that conserves the natural and cultural heritage and contributes to the well-being of local communities."
  Some of the philosophies of ecotourism as outlined by the Estonian association include understanding the social carrying capacity of the area, understanding the ecological carrying capacity of the area, benefiting the local people, appropriate pricing strategies, building environmental costs into the prices of goods and services, and responsible marketing of tourist opportunities.
  Has experience shown that these goals are even remotely possible?
  Global tourism, while allowing some the opportunity to meet people, visit exotic environments, and understand cultures, provides billions of dollars to the corporations that are raping, polluting, and destroying the Earth, her people, and her animals. Of course there is ample corporate support for ecotourism efforts, and nations all over the world are getting help opening their doors to rampant consumerism and corporate takeover of every aspect of our world.
  The vast majority of tourists are not folks with sustainability and community building on their minds who stay with local families and respect local customs. The vast majority of tourists sail in on huge cruise ships or fly in to stay in large hotels and take advantage of local people.
  I think there needs to be a serious reality check done by ecotourism proponents about this idea that tourism will generate world peace and environmental harmony. What it does generate is deadly pollution, toxic chemicals and waste, the destruction of ecosystems, and the erosion of communities, turning local people into agents of the world's corporations.
  While I applaud the efforts of organizations around the world to change the damaging effects of tourism, encouraging more people to travel through ecotourism may just be contributing to the problem. And I support those compassionate individuals who travel to be with people, not to take advantage of them. But as long as we have leaders committed to a global economy bent on developing every inch of the globe, ecotourism efforts may be playing into the hands of global corporations.
  Possibly the best recommendation toward healing the tourism issues is to begin a worldwide effort to restore damaged cultures and twisted economies — and to ask people to just stay home.
  In Shanghai's Shadow
  Hong Kong Or Shanghai? There are few more predictable conversations around the dinner tables of SAR financial and government sorts than the perennial question of whether Hong Kong will be eclipsed by its northern competitor.1
  The official line in Hong Kong is that there is room enough2 for two Chinese financial centers. Economies like the United States support multiple centers serving specific industry clusters and regions. New York and Chicago compete and complement on each other at the same time, goes the reasoning. 3
  Hong Kong's advantage is its clean government, predictable, and international orientation. The city is wired into the overseas Chinese network by bonds of language and history, has its Guangdong industrial hinterland and will remain the international finance raising center of China even as Shanghai develops5 a far larger domestic finance base.4 and common law based legal environment
  On the “eclipse” side, the case is basically that every great trading port has its day. Just as the Venetian states and Liverpool fell off the trading map as the locus of trade and economic activity shifted, so Hong Kong’s “competitive advantage” has a narrow window. The decline might be relative, but Shanghai's industrial, entrepreneurial and political power means that must dominate6.
  Hong Kong well knows the advantage of critical mass over ambitious competitors that protest to try harder. It has had that relationship with Singapore for years. The southern city-state has ambitiously courted fund managers, chip markers and software vendors with subsidies and freebies, but Singapore continues to chase without seriously threatening Hong Kong’s Asian business hub status.
  Recently, through its rebranding efforts, Hong Kong is intending to differentiate the city in the minds of outsiders. That seems a bit silly, but harmless.
  In short, it doesn't matter whether Shanghai rules, as long as Hong Kong does what it does best, rather than ape what it believes a competitor such as Shanghai might do, if and when it becomes the dominant6 commercial Chinese city. 7 
  Japan’s Tough Choice
  Japanese policymakers are in a real fix. They seem to have tried almost everything to deal with the persistent1 deflation in the world’s second-biggest economy but failed. Interest rates are close to zero. They have pumped trillions of yen into the economy—in fact they have issued so many government bonds that their credit rating is threatened. But deflation persists2. And so, it appears, the only thing left is devaluation. In December3, the yen weakened by 7% against the dollar. This month it fell still further, to \133.4 against the dollar4, a 39-month low, raising suspicions that devaluation is already government policy.
  Japan’s problems are acute indeed. The Nikkei stock market index stands at little more than a quarter of the level of its 1989 peak. The country has been5 in recession for the past year and national income is expected to shrink again this year. Industrial production withered by 13% in the year to November. Consumer prices, which have been falling5 since 1999, are expected to continue to decline this year. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, it appeared as if inflation was the only evil. But deflation comes with its own problems. For one6consumers hold off spending because they know their money will be worth more tomorrow7, making consumers even warier about spending, and demand falls again. In Japan, there are two other problems: real interest rates, that is interest rates after inflation8, become very high, and deflation swells an already heavy debt burden in real terms. .Demand falls. Companies lay off workers
  Japanese unemployment is at an historical high of 5.5%. On top of this, there is believed to be much hidden unemployment across the economy. The actions taken so far seem to have had little effect5. Japanese consumers have refused to increase their spending, and the Japanese savings rate remains among the highest in the world.
  George Soros—the Financial Crocodile
   “The US governs the international system to protect its own economy. It is not in charge of protecting other economies,” Soros says. “So when America goes into recession, you have anti-recessionary policies. When other countries are in recession, they don’t have the ability to engage in anti-recessionary policies because they can’t have a permissive monetary policy, because money would flee.” In person, he has the air of a philosophy professor rather than a gimlet-eyed financier. In a soft voice which bears the traces of his native Hungary, he argues that it is time to rewrite the so-called Washington consensus—the cocktail of liberalization, privatization and fiscal rectitude which the IMF has been preaching for 15 years. Developing countries no longer have the freedom to run their own economies, he argues, even when they follow perfectly sound policies. He cites Brazil, which although it has a floating currency and manageable public debt was paying ten times over the odds to borrow from capital markets.
  Soros credits the anti-globalization movement for having made companies more sensitive to their wider responsibilities. “I think [the protesters] have made an important contribution by making people aware of the flaws of the system,” he says. “People on the street had an impact on public opinion and corporations which sell to the public responded to that.” Because the IMF has abandoned billion dollar bailouts for troubled economies, he thinks a repeat of the Asian crisis is unlikely. The fund’s new “tough love” policy—for which Argentina is the guinea pig—has other consequences. The bailouts were a welfare system for Wall Street, with western taxpayers rescuing the banks from the consequences of unwise lending to emerging economies. Now the IMF has drawn a line in the sand, credit to poor countries is drying up. “It has created a new problem—the inadequacy of the flow of capital from center to the periphery,” he says.
  The one economy Soros is not losing any sleepabout is the US. “I am much more positive about the underlying economy than I am about the market, because we are waging war not only on terrorism but also on recession,” he says. “I have not yet seen an economy in recession when you are gearing up for war.” He worries that the world’s largest economic power is not living up to its responsibilities. “I would like the United States to live up to the responsibilities of its hegemonic power because it is not going to give up its hegemonic power,” he says. “The only thing that is realisticis for the United States to become aware that it is in its enlightened self-interest to ensure that the rest of the world benefits from their role.”
  Converting the Masses Starbucks in China
  It sounds like Mission Impossible:Sell coffee to China’s tea drinkers. Starbucks’ solution is to select high-profile locations1 on the busiest streets,where stores are sure to se duce the see-and-be-seen set2.
  As Starbucks launches an aggressive expansion in China,a coffee frontier steeped in nearly 5000 years of tea3. The goal:to build hip hang-outs that tap into a new taste for China’s emerging middle class.4
  Starbucks China doesn’t plan any advertising,promotions,or other marketing strategies,aside from sponsoring an on-line coffee club and the occasional office-tower coffee tasting.Insteadthe company is counting on selecting such high-visibilityhigh-traffic cafe locations that they market themselves.Its main advertising medium is the store itself5.
  But in fast-changing Chinese cities,finding locations that will embody the right lifestyle is more akin to gambling than science6. The computerized mapping databases that the company uses to test a potential street corner in the United States would be little help in Chinese cities. Starbucks also faces an uphill battle. Local media reported that 70% of people they surveyed would rather not see the chain in Beijing’s Forbidden City. And even for middle-class Chinese,Starbucks is a barely affordable luxury.While retailers say a top marketing weapon in urban China is to charge more for public consumption. That’s because Chinese customers have different priorities than their American yuppie counterparts. Guys 40 years old are not coffee drinkers,but if the environment is good and the coffee is not bad,they’ll come back. The store layoutartwork and food options make Starbucks more friendly to Chinese eyes7but 8coffee remains the core offering and people don’t go there for the coffee. They go there to present themselves as modern Chinese in a public setting.
  随着星巴克在中国开拓市场的强劲势头,具有近5000年历史的中国茶文化就渗透了来自咖啡王国的浓香3 (咖啡先锋浸入拥有近5000年茶文化历史的中国)。目标是把星巴克建成时新的常去的场所,吸引中国新兴中产阶级品尝新的口味4(开发新的口味来迎合中国新兴的中产阶级)。
  NASDAQ, acronym for the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation system, is one of the largest markets in the world for the trading of stocksincluding the New York StockNYSE and the American Stock Exchange AMEX3. The majority of companies listed on NASDAQ are smaller than most of those on the NYSE and AMEX. NASDAQ has become known as the home of new technology companies, particularly computer and computer-related businesses. Trading on NASDAQ is initiated by stock brokers acting on behalf of their clients. The brokers negotiate with market makers who concentrate on trading specific stocks4 to reach a price for the stock. Exchange .1 The number of companies listed on NASDAQ is more than2 that on any of the other stock exchanges in the United States
  Unlike other stock exchanges, NASDAQ has no central location where trading takes place. Instead5, its market makers are located all over the country and make trades by telephone and via the Internet. Because brokers and market makers trade stocks directlyinstead of on the floor of a stock exchange, NASDAQ is called an over-the-counter market. The term over-the-counter refers to the direct nature of the trading, as in a store where goods are handed over a counter.
  Since its inception in l97l, the NASDAQ Stock Market has been the innovator. As the world’s first electronic stock market, NASDAQ long ago set a precedent fortechnological trading innovation that is unrivaled, the NASDAQ Stock Market is the market of choice for business industry leaders worldwide. By providing an efficient environment for raising capital NASDAQ has helped thousands of companies achieve their desired growth and successfully make the leap into public ownership7.6. Now poised to become the world’s first truly global market
  The American Experts on Tips of Investing in Bear Market
  Amid all the hammerings investors have endured since early 2000, the market plunge after September’s terrorist attacks would seem to qualify as a bottom.
  Trouble is, no one ever knows until much later when the market has reached its nadir. False bottoms and bear market rallies have trapped investors since time immemorial.
  Capitulations don’t occur in every market cycle. Of the ten bear markets since World War II, eight ended in a whimper, with the market steadily trending lower and no selling crescendo, says Lisa Kammert, U.S. equity market analyst at Birinyi Associates. Finally a bull market sets in. The 1990-91 market slump fits that pattern.
  And bull markets aren’t a guarantee even when there is a capitulation. Following a two-day, 25% selloff in October 1929, the market seemed to recover and then spent another three years falling apart all over again. It took a quarter-century to recover lost ground. A similarly frustrating thing took place in the 1970s. A cathartic selloff in 1974 was followed by a quick recovery and then years of blah performance.
  The seers are blind. Economists have failed to call a single recession in the past four decades. A November 1989 National Association for Business Economists survey found them at their most optimistic in a decade, predicting clear sailing for at least three years. Eight months later a recession arrived.
  Investors must wrestle with internal demons to time the market right. We are by nature momentum investors. We try to prepare for the future by extrapolating from the present, says Jeffrey Heisler, a Boston University professor who specializes in the impact of individual behavior on markets.
  A price decline does not in itself make a good value. If a rebate offer lets you get a $33,000 sedan for only $30,000, you’ve got yourself a good deal. But discounted stocks aren’t necessarily a bargain. Nor does the fact that they were higher before make them particularly likely to go up now.
  On the positive side, the calendar suggests we’re due for a turnaround. The bear market that began for the Dow in January 2000 is now the third longest since World War II. Only the 1,111-day bear market of 1946-49 was appreciably longer than the current 654-day one; the 1973-74 bear market lasted 694 days. In fact, by the time the media fills with warnings of recession, as it has in recent weeks, the worst has usually passed, says InvesTech’s Stack.
  Despite all, you can take advantage of a bear market. You don’t have to be a market seer to take losses. Just have some plan for selling losers and reinvesting immediately in comparable, but not identical, stocks or funds. The tax collector will share your pain.
  If you end up with a $50,000 capital loss, only $3,000 of it can be used annually to offset salary and interest income, but the other $47,000 doesn’t go to waste. It is carried forward to offset capital gains in your other holdings two, three or ten years hence.
  You can profit by buying and holding for a long time. Don’t put much stock in short-term speculations. Buy stocks with a 20-year investing horizon, and have realistic expectations for them. Vanguard founder John Bogle suggests 8% a year as a reasonable return.
  Modified Agricultural Practices 1
  Since agriculture accounts for nearly 70 percent of the world’s fresh water withdrawn from rivers, lakes, and underground aquifers for human use, the greatest potential for conservation lies with increasing irrigation efficiency1. By reducing irrigation by 10 percent, we could double 2the amount available for domestic water worldwide. This can be done by converting to water-conserving irrigation systems; taking the poorest and steepest lands out of production3; switching to less-thirsty crops (which may require changes to government subsidies for certain crops); implementing proper agricultural land drainage and soil management practices, and reducing fertilizer and pesticide use.4
  Typically, governments provide water to large commercial farmers at greatly subsidized rates, decreasing the need for conservation and promoting wasteful practices, leaks out of pipes, or evaporates before reaching fields. Although some of the water lost in inefficient irrigation systems returns to streams or aquifers where it can be tapped again water quality is invariably degraded by pesticides fertilizers and salts7. This is in fact another way that commercial agriculture “uses” water: by polluting it so that it is no longer safe to drink. In areas where commercial agriculture is prevalent, runoff 8from farms has poisoned water supply with dangerous levels of toxics.95. This has led to widespread use of wasteful irrigation systems6. Studies show that just 35-50 percent of water withdrawn for irrigated agriculture actually reaches the crops. Most soaks into the ground through unlined canals

小编工资已与此挂钩!一一分钱!求打赏↓ ↓ ↓