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英美文学考前总复习 一

   .What is the most famous theme in Henry James’s fiction?and what is his favourite approach in characterization,which makes him different from Mark Twain and W.D .Howells as realists?give two titles of his works in which this theme and this approach are employed.
1.his most famous theme is international theme.2.Psychological approach 3.The portrait of a lady ;Daisy Miller
..What are the qualities of Emily Dikinson poems? (Emily Dikinson)
1.Dickinson is poems are usually based on her own experiences,her sorrows and joys.2.Love is another subject Dickinson dwelt on.3.Many poems Dickinson wrote are about nature,in which her general skepticism about the relationship between man and nature is well-expressed.4.Dickinson is poetry is unique and unconventional in own way.Her poems have no titles,hence are always quoted by their first lines.
.Sister Carrie is the greatest literary work by Theodore Dreiser.Discuss Carrie Meeber,the protagonist of the novel.
1.Carrier,penniless and full of illusions of ignorance and youth,leaves her yural home to seek work in         Chicago.Dis-illusioned bu meager income and terrible work condition in a shoe factory,she acceptes Drouet as his mistress.Later,shefalls in love with Drouet is friend Hurstwood and eloupes with him.However,when Hurstwood is life is on the decline,Carrier leaves him.Carrier becomes a star of musical comedies at last;yet she is lonely and dissatisfied.2.Sister Carrie best embodies Dreiser is naturalistic belief that while men are controlled and conditioned by heredity,in-stinct and chance,a few unsophisticated human beings refuse to accept their fate and try to find meaning and purpose for their existence.Carrie,as one of such,senses that she is merely a cipher in an uncaring world yet seeks to grasp the mys-teries of life and thereby satisfies her desire for social status and material comfort.
.Discuss the character of Carrie Meeber in Theodore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie and his naturalistic tendency in the novel.
Carrie Meeber:A.Penniless,naïve,”full of the illusions of innocence and youth”;B.Involved in the search for the American Dream;C.A cipher in a cold and harsh world,driven to move like a mechanism by desire for better existence;Dreiser’snaturalistic tendency in the novel:A.Influenced by Darwin’s idea of “survival of the fittest”,Dreiser describes earthly existence as “a welter of inscrutable forces,”man as a “victim of forces over which he has no control”;B.The characters in his novels are often subject to the control of natural forces—those of environment and heredity;C.In Sister Carrie Dreiser describes the purposelessness of life and attacks the conventional value standards.After a series of incidents and coincidents,Carrie obtains fame and comfort while Hurstwood loses his wealth,social position,pride and eventually his life.Thus this novel best embodies Dreiser’snaturalistic belief that men are controlled and conditioned by heredity,instinct and chance.Neither of them can control their fates.They are just driven by fate,Hurstwood more by incidents and Carrie more by instinct.
.What idea can you draw from the “rocking-chair”?(from Theofore Dreiser’s Sister Carrie)
A.The rocking-chair is a symbol standing for fate.It is like a cradle that makes one feel peaceful.B.It is also like a tide that ever goes on with life,the destiny of which is uncertian.
1.What does Theodore dreiser discuss in his novelGive examples to prove your viewpoint.
Dreiser set himself to project the American values for what he had found them to be_materialistic to the core.Living in such a society with such a value system,the human individual is obsessed with a never—ending,yet meaningless search for satisfaction of his desires.One of the desires is for money which was a motivating purpose of life in the United States in the late 19th century.
    For example, in Sister Carrie, there is not one character whose status is not determined economically.Sex is another human desire that Dreiser explored to considerable lengths in his novels to reveal the dark side of human nature.in Sister Carrier,Carrie climbs up the social ladder by means of her sexual appeal.Like all naturalists he was restrained from finding a solution to the social problems that appeared in his novels and accordingly almost all his works have tragic endings
.The story Araby by Joyce is both meticulously in itshandling of details of Dublin life and the Dublin scene and highly symbolic in that almostevery image and incident suggests some particular aspect of the theme.Briefly discuss the symbolism Joyce employs in presenting this theme.
1.Short days of winter,blind and quiet street and many others foretell the inevitable failure of the boy is attemot to reach his desire.2.Mangan is sister,for whom the boy had tender feelings,symbolizes hope\aspiration,but she was symbolically con-fined.3.The journey to the bazaar is a quest for the fulfillment of the aspiration,but the journey was intolerably delayed,and when the boy got to the bazaar,half of it was already dark,What is more,the young lady at the door of a stall was not encouraging,and spoke to the boy out of sense of duty.When the upper part of the hall was completely dark,the boy is disillusionment was announced.And thus,Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and de-rided by vanity;and my eyes burned with anguish and anger.
.Explain why Mrs.Morel couldn’t bear to think Paul’s life wouldn’t be a happy one.
1.Because mrs.morel herself was born in a middle-class family.2.Mrs.Morel is a strong-willed,intelligent and ambitious woman and the disillusion in her husband made her lavish all the affections upon her sons and determine to educate them to realize her ideals of success and happiness; so she couldn’t bear to think his sons ,Paul,had an happy life.
. How is Twain’s realism different from James’s realism?
1.Mark Twain’s realism is tainted with local color,prefernny to have his own region and people at the forefront of his stories.2.Jame’s realism is concerned with the “inner world”of man.3.James’srealism is also concerned with the international theme.4.Twain’s language is simple and colloquial5.Twain employs humor in his writing. 6.James’s language is elaborate and refined with lengthy psychological analyses.
.Discuss the striking feature of Paul,the main character in Sons and Lovers?
1.He gradually comes under the strong influence of his mother in affections,aspiration and mental habits,and sees his father with his mother’s eyes.2.Paul depends heavily on his mother’s love and help to make sense of the world around him.3.In order to become an independent man and a true artist he has to make his own decisions about his life and work,and has to struggle to become free from his mother’s influence.4.Paul is proved to be incapable of escaping the overpowering emotional bond imposed by his mother’s love,so he fails to achieve a fulfilling relationship with either girl.5.Finally,Paul determined to face the unknown future.
.F.Scott Fitzgeraldis a great stylist in American literature.What is his art of novels?
1.His style,closely related to his themes,is explicit and chilly.2.His accurate dialogues,his careful observation of manneeism,styles,models and attitudes provide the reader with a vivid sense of reality.3.He also skillfully employs the device of having events observed by a central consciousness to his great advan-tage.4.In his words,there are plenty of accurate details,the completely original diction and metaphors,the bold impress-sionistic and colorful quality.
..Based on the novel,The Great Gatsby,discuss the characteristics of Fitzgerald is works.
1.Fitzgerald is fictional world is the best embodiment of the spirit of the Jazz Age,in which he shoes a particular in-terest in the upper-class society,especially the upper-class young people.2.Fitzgerald never spared an intimate touch in his fiction to deal with the bankruptcy of the American Dream.3.Fitzgerald is a great stylist in American literature.His style,closely related to his themes,is explicit and chilly.His accurate dialogues,his careful observation of mannerism,styles,models and attitudes provide the reader with a vivid sense of reality.4.He follows the Jamesian tradition in using the scenic method in his chapters,each one of which consists of one or more dramatic scenes,sometimes with intervening passages of narration,leaving the tedious process of transition to the readr is imagination.
 .Briefly discuss The Great Gatsby.
The Great Gatsby,a novel written by F.Scott Fizgerald,is one of the greatest novels in Amercian literature.It fully explores the disillusionment and despair of the Lost Generation through the personal tragedy of young man whose in-corruptible dream is easily smashed into pieces by the crude reality.The protagonist,Gatsby,is a mythical figure whose intensity of dream partakes of a state of mind that embodies American itself.His failure magnifies the end of the Ameri-can dream.The style of the story is explicit and chilly.Fitzgerald is accurate dialogues,his careful observation of man-nerism and the colorful images provide the reader with a vivid and profound sense of reality.
.Why is The Great Gatby is a successful novel?
A.Evoking a haunting mood of a glamorous,wild time that seemingly will never come again;B.Sense of loss and disillusionment that comes with the failure embodied fully in the personal tragedy of a young man whose”incorruptible dream””smashed into pieces by the relentless reality”;C.Gatsby,a mythical figure whose personal experience approximates a sense of mind of the American;the last of the romantic heroes,whose energy and sense of commitment take him in search of personal grail,Gatsby’sfailuer predicts to great extent the end of the American dream.
.Discuss Hemingway is art of fiction:his style,the particular type of hero in his nowels,and his life attitudes,etc.
1.Typical of this iceberg analogy is Hemingway is style.2.Grace under pressure isactually an attitude towards life that Hemingway had been trying to demonstrate in his works.3.In his works,he depicts characters as brave and unyielded heroes.4.Human speech is full of accents and mannerisms and the use of short,simple and conventionai words and sentences has an effect of clearness,tereness and great care.
.What are the characteristics of the Hemingway code hero?
A.They have seen the cold world and for one cause or another,they boldly and courageously face the reality;whatever the result is,they are ready to live with grace under pressure.B.Almost all his heroes are”soldiers”either in a narrow or broad sense.They are out there to fight against nature or the world,or even themselves.But no matter where the battleground is and how tragic the ending is, they will never be defeated.C.Hemingway himself is one of those code heroes;some critics say his protagonists are autobiographical,for they share something that is hemingway.
.What is the relationship between William FaulKner and American South Literature? 
1.Most of FaulKners works are set in the American South.2.He emphasizes the Southern subjects and consciousness in his works3.His works have managed successfully to show a panorama of the experience and consciousness of the whole southern society.
. Discuss the way symbolism is used in Faulkner’s story”A Rose for Emily”.
   1. Rose, as symbol of love ,may refer to the love between Emily and the Northerner, yet used rather ironically ,in the way it is associated with decay and death in the story. 2.Rose could also stand for the pity ,sympathy ,or the lament”we”showsfor Emily.3.The pity and lament goes not only to Emily but all those who are imprisoned in the past and fail to the change.4 .Discuss in relation to the story.
 . Do you know anything about Yoknapatawpha Country?What is unique of Faulkner is fiction,historically and geographically?
A.Yoknapatawpha Country is an imagined place based on Faulkner is own hometown,a place that he took for the setting of 15 of his 19 novels and many short stories.This small region in the American South becomes in Faulkner is fic-tion an allegory or a parable of the Old South.B.His literary representation of the Old South;and his theme of the deterioration,loss and moral and moral decay of the Old South when it was falling apart.
.What does Yoknapatwapha Country stand for in Faulkner is novels/
1.In Willianm Faulkner is wrtings,the place Yoknapatawpha Country is frequently set as the background.This place is actually an imaginary place besed on Faulkner is childhood memory about the place where he grew up,the town of Ox-ford in his native Lafayette Country in the American South.2.With his rich imagination,Faulkner turned the land,the people and the history of the region into a literary creation and a mythical kingdom.The Yoknapatawpha country series have an overall pattern in which the fate of a ruined home-land always focuses on the collision of Faulkner is intelligent,sensitive,and idealistic protagonist with the society of the twentieth century.Most of the major themes are directly reated to this confrontation in Faulkner is novels.
.What are the characteristics of the Humanism?
1.Humanism is the essence of Renaissance.2.Humanists see that human beings were glorious creatures capable of individual development in the direction of perfec-tion,and that the world they inhabited was theirs not to despise but to question,explore,and enjoy.3.They also believe that man did not only have the right to enjoy the beauty of this life,but had the ability to perfect himself and to perform wonders
1.Who are the three dominant figures in American Realistic Period What are the literary differences between them ?
A.Mark Twain,Howells and James;B.Mark Twain and Howells’attention to the “life”of the American;Henry James’semphasis on “inner world”of man;C.Howells’emphasis on the rising middle class and the way they live;Mark Twain on his own region and people of the lower class of society.
.who are the leading figures in this transcendentalism movement and what are their major works?
Ralph Waldo Emerson,Henry David ThoreauEmerson wrote”nature”,which discusses the love of the nature,the uses of nature,the idealist philosophy inrelation to nature,evidences of spirit in the material universe,and the potential expansion of human souls and works that will result from a general return to direct,immediate contact with the natural environment.Thoreau wrote “Walden”,which the book fully demonstrates emersonian ideas of self—reliance and develops and test thoreau’s own transcendental philosophy.
.What are the characteristics of the romantic literature?Please discuss the above question in rela-tion to one or two examples.
1.In poetry writing,the romanticist employed new theories and innovated new techniques.2.The romanticist not only extol the faculty of imagination,but also elevate the concepts of spontaneity and inspiyation.3.They regarded nature as the major source of poetic poetic imagery ang the dominant subject.4.Romantics also tend to be nationalistic.
 .discuss,in relation to the works you know,the difference between Romanticism and Nco-classicism.(How is romanticism different from neoclassicism?provide brief evidence from the literary works you know best.)
1.Nco-classicists upheld that artistic ideals should be order,logic,restrained emotion and accuracy,and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity,and thus,literary expressions should be of proportion,unity,harmony and grace.Pope’s An Essay on criticism advocates grace,wit ,and simplicity in language ;Fielding’s tom jones helped establish the form of novel Gray’s”elegy written in a country churehyard’displays elegance in style ,unified structure,serious tone and moral instruction.2.romanticists tended to see the individual as the very center of all experience,including art,and thus,literary work should be “spontaneousover flow of strong feelings,”and no matter how fragmentary those experiences were(Wordsworth’sI Wandered lonely as a cloud,or the solitaryreaper)orColeridge’s Kubla Khan),the value of the work lied in the accuracy of presenting those unique feelings and particular attitudes.3.In a word, Nco-classicism emphasized rationality and form but Romanticism attached great importance to the individual’s mind.
.What is the background of American Romanticism?
A.Historically,time of westward expansion;B.Economically,industrial transformation;C.Politically,democracy and equality as the ideal of the new nation;D.Literally,an urge to have its own literary expression and to make known its new experience.
.Wha are the literary characteristics of American Romanticism?
A.A strong sense optimism giving birth to the spectacular outburst of romantic feeling;B.The impact of English Romanticism;C.America’sown philosophy Transcendentalism;D.Moral enthusiasm,faith in the value of individualism and intuitive perception and a presumption that nature was a source of goodness.
According to Washington Irving,Nathaniel Hawthore and Walt Whitman,etc, their writings,discuss the fea-tures of Aemrican literature in Romantic Period
The American writers of this period were influenced greatly by foreign literary masters,especially the English counterparts.Yet,they showed unique characteristics of their own in their works and they grew on the native lands.In most of them,a new emphasis was laid upon the imaginative and emotional qualities of literature,and an increasing em-phasis was put upon the free expression of emotions.They also placed an increasing attention to the psychic states of their characters.In their wrtings lie a strong tendency to exalt the individual and the common man
.Briefly discuss what the features of American in the romantic period are
1.The whole nation had a strong sense of optimism and the mood of “feeling good’ ,giving birth to the spectacular outburst of romantic feeling.2.The English counterpart exerted a stimulating impact on the writers of the young nation.3.Taking foreigh influence into consideration,the great works of American writers still carried typically American romamtist color.4.The young nation had brought forth its own philosophy such as transcendentalism,stressing man’s capacity of knowing truth intuitively and of attaining knowledge transcending the reach of the sense
.Why are naturalists inevitably pessimistic in their view?please discuss the above question in relation to the basic principles of literary naturalism.
A.They accept the negative implication of Darwin’stheory of evolution,and believe that society is a “jungle‘wheresurvival struggles go on.B.They believe that man’s instinct,the environment and other social and economic forces play an overwhelming role and man’s fate is”determined”by such forces beyond his control..
.Why is American naturalists pessimistic in their writings?
1.The American naturalists accepted the more negative implications of Darwin is evolutionary theory and used it to account for the behavior of those characters in literary works.2.Consciously or unconsciously the A.merican naturalists followed the French novelist and theorist Emile Zola.They chose their subjects from the lower ranks of society and portrayed misery and poverty of the underdogs who were dem-onstrably victims of society and nature.3.philosophically,the naturalists believe that true and real is always partially hidden from the eyes of the individual,or beyond his control.Devoid of rationality and caught in a process in which he is but a part,man cannot fully under-stand,let alone control,the world he lives in;hence,he is left with no freedom of choice.
.What are the characteristics of American naturalism?Please discuss the above question in relation to basic principles of literary naturalism.
1.The most familiar in American naturalism is the theme of human bestiality,especially as an explanation of sexual desire.2.Artistically naturalistic writings are usually unpolished in language,lacking in academic skills and unwieldy in structure.3.Philosophically,the naturalists believe that the real and true is always partially hidden from the eyes of the individu-al,or beyond his control.4.The author is tone in wrting becomes less serious and less sympathetic but more ironic and more pessimistic.
 .Compared with earlier writings,especially those of the 19th century,what are the characteristics of modern American writings?
1.A typical modern work will seem to begin arbitrarily,to advance without explanation,and to end without reso-lution.2.The book is no longer a record of sequence and coherence but a juxtaposition of the past and the present,of the history and the memory.3.There are shifts in perspective,voice,and tone,but the biggest shift is from the external to the internal,from the pub-lic to the private,from the chronological to the psychic,from the objective description to the subjective projection.4.The traditional educated literary voice,conveying truth and culture,has lost its authority to a more detached and ironic tone.5.Vignettes of contemporary life,dream imagery and symbolism drawn from the authors private repertory of life experi-ences are also important.
一.What are the similarities and differences between the three literary giants,howells,Mark TwainHenryJamesin terms of their literary orientation
1.They are the three dominant figures of the realistic period.together they brought tofulfillment native trends in the realistic portrayal of the landscape and social surfaces,brought to perfection the vernacular style,and explored and exploited the literary possibilities of the interior life.2.Together in short,theyset the example and charted the future course for the subjects,themes,techniques and styles of fiction we still call modern.2.Howells focused his discussion on the rising middle class and the way they lived.Mark Twain preferred to have his own region and people at the forefront of his stories,while Henry James had apparently laid a greater emphasis on the “inner world”of man .
. Why is Lyrical Ballads considered the millestone to mark the beginning of English Romanticism?
1.in this book,wordsworth and Coleridge explored new theories and innovated new techniques in poetry writing.2.the preface to the Lyrical Ballads acts as a manifesto for the new school. In the preface,Wordsworth defines poetry and poets.3. Wordsworth’s poems in this book differ in marked ways from his early poetry;simplicity of the langage,sympathy for the poor,and expressions of inward states of mind.
.What is “stream of consciousness”in novel writing?Try to explain the question from two angles.
1, In modern literature,quite many new trends appeared.among them, “Stream of consciousness”the theory of which was discovered by William James,an American Psychologist.Fitzyerald this method in novel writing,creating new features in deepening the theme of the novel.2.Generally speaking, the novel of” stream of consciousness”is just written against the order of time or logic,thus making the plot queer.But through this queerness,the reader is enchanted into the psychological world within heroes and the chaotic world without them.
. What is stream of consciousness?
1.In Joyce is opinion,the artist,who wants to reach the highest stage and to gain the insights necessary for the creation of dramatic art,should rise to the position of a god-like objectivity;he should have the complete conscious control over the creative process and depersonalize his own emotion in the artistic creation.He should appear as an omniscient author and present uspoken materials directly from the psyche of the characters,or make the characters is usually termed as stream of consciousness.
.Briefly discuss Enlightenment Movement.
Enlightenment Movement was a progressive intellectual movement,which flourished in France and swept through the whale Western Europe.The movement was a furtherance of the Renaissance from the 14th century to the mid-17th century.The purpose of the movement was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artis-tic ideas.It celebrated teason of rationality,equality and science.It advocated universal education.Literature at the time became a very popular means of public education.
.List at least three leading enlightenters celebrated in this movement?What are the important things those enlighteners celebrated in this movement?
The leading enlightenters are Daniel Defoe,Samual Richardson,Henry fielding,Oliver Goldsmith,etc.They are the prominent figures in developing the modern English novel,which gives a realistic presentation of life the common English people.This is the most significant phenomenon in the history of the development of English literature in the eighteenth century.
.What is local colourism in American literature?
1.Mark Twain,Sarah Orne Joseph Kirkland are representatives of local colorists whose writings are concerned with the life of a small,well-defined or province.The characteristic setting is the isolated small town.2.These local colorists,especially Mark Twain,preferred to present social life through portraits of the local characters of his regions,including people living in that area,the landscape,and other peculiarities like the customs,dialects,cos-tumes and so on.3.This particular concern about the local character of a region came about as local colorism,a unique variation of A-merican literary realism.
.what is “neoclassicism”?
1.With the introduction of the Enlightment Movement into england,a revival of interest in the old classical works was in full swing.This tendency is known as neoclassicism.according to the neoclassicists,all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek and Roman writers(Homer,Virgil,Horace,Ovid,etc,and those of the contemporary french ones. They believed that the artistic ideals should be order,logic,restrainedemotion and accuracy, and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.
What is the belief of the neoclassicists about literature
According to the neoclassicists,all forms of literature were to be modeled after the classical works of the ancient Greek andRoman writers and those of the contemporary French ones.they believed that the artistic ideals should be order,logic,restrained emotion and accuracy,and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.
.According to the neoclassicists,what are the standards for literature during the neoclassical period?
Neoclassicists had fixed rules for almost every genre of literatureProse should be precise,direct,smooth and flexiblPoetry should be lyrical,epical,didactic,satiric or dramatic,and each class should be guided by its own principleDrama should be written in the heroic couplets,the three Unities should be strictly observed,regularity in construction should be adhered to,and the typical characters rather than individuals should be represented.               
.What is “the lost Generation”?
When the First World War broke out,many young men volunteered to take part in “the war to end wars” only to find that modern warfare was not as glorious or heroic as they thought it to be.Disillusioned and disguised by the frivolous,greedy,and heedless way of life in America,they began to write and they wrote from their own experience in the war. Among these young writers were the most prominent figures in American literature, especially in modern American literature.They were basically expatriates who left America and formed a community of writers and artists in Paris,involved with other European novelists and poets in their experimentation on new modes of thought and expression. These writers were later named “The LostGeneration.”
.How did “The Lost Generation” come into existence in the literary history of the United States?Who were the leading figures of this literary movement?What does the term “Lost Generation” mean?
When the First World War broke out,many American young men volunteered to take part in” the war to end wars” only to find that modern warfare was not as glorious or heroic as they thought it to be Disillusioned and disgusted by the frivolous,greedy,and heedless way of life in America,they began to write and they wrote from their own experiences in the war.Among these young writers were the most prominent figures in American literature,especially in modern American literature. They were basically expatriates who left America and formed a community of writers and artists in paris,involved with other European novelists and poets in their experimentation on new modes of thought and expression.These writers were named by an American writer,Gertrude Stein, ‘the lost generation“Among the greatest figures in”The Lost Generation‘ are Ezra Pound,William Carlos Williams,Robert Frost,F.Scott Fitzgerald,Ernest Hemingwayand William Faulkner.
.what are Gothic novels?
Gothic novels are mostly stories of mystery and horror which take place in some haunted or dilapidated Middle Age castles such as The Castle of otran byHorance Walpole,The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Italian by Mrs.Ann Radcliffes, The Champion of virtue,a Gothic story by Clara Reeveand the Monk by M.G.Lewis
一.What is Metaphysical poetry aboutand who is the leading figure of it
 It is a term commonly used to name the work of the 17th century writers who wrote under the influence of John Donne.With a rebellious spirit,the metaphysical poetry tried to break away from the conventional fashion of the Elizabethan love poetry.The diction is simple as compared with that of the Elizabethan or then neoclassic periods and echoes the words and cadences of common speech.The imagery is drawn from the actual life,The form is frequently that of an argument with the poet’s beloved, with God,or with himself.
一.Why are naturalists inevitably pessimistic in their view?
A.Naturalism was greatly influenced by Darwin’s evolutionary theory and French literature.B.Naturalists accepted the more negative implications of Darwin’s theory and used it to count for the behavior of those characters in literary works who were conceived as more or less complex combinations of inherited,attributes,their habits conditioned by social and economic forces.C.Naturalism is evolved from realism when the author’s tone in writing becomes less serious and less sympathetic but more ironic and more pessimistic.

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