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  1. In short, it was an age full of conflicts and divergence of values.总之,这一时期是矛盾与价值观分歧的时期。
  2. The eighteenth-century England is also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason.英国的十八世纪也同时是启蒙主义时代,或曰理性时代。
  3. Its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas.运动的主旨便是用当代哲学与艺术思想的晨光启迪整个世界。
  4. Enlighteners held that rationality or reason should be the only, the final cause of any human thought and activities. They called for a reference to order, reason and rules.启蒙者主张理性是任何人思想与行动的唯一缘由。他们大力提倡秩序,理性及法律。
  5. As a matter of fact, literature at the time, heavily didactic and moralizing, became a very popular means of public education.其实,当时的文学作品种充满了说教与道德理念,就已经成为大众教育的良好工具。
  6. Famous among the great enlighteners in England were those great writers like John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele, the two pioneers of familiar essays, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson.英国著名的启蒙主义文学家有约翰.德莱顿,亚历山大.蒲柏,约瑟夫.艾迪森与理查.斯蒂尔(这两位是现代散文的先驱),乔纳森.斯威夫特,丹尼尔.迪福,理查.B.谢立丹,亨利.费尔丁和塞缪尔.约翰逊。
  7. In the field of literature, the Enlightenment Movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works.在文学领域,启蒙主义运动还使人们重新对古典时代的著作产生兴趣。
  8. They believed that the artistic ideals should be order, logic, restrained emotion and accuracy, and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.他们认为理想的艺术应基于秩序,逻辑,确切及情感控制的基础上,而文学作品的价值评判标准应该看它是否为人文主义服务。
  9. Thus a polite, urbane, witty, and intellectual art developed.由此一种温文尔雅,充满灵性的知识分子文学艺术发展起来。
  10. Neoclassicists had some fixed laws and rules for almost every genre of literature.在几乎所有的文学形式中,新古典主义者们都设定了创作的规矩与条框。
  11. Drama should be written in the heroic Couplets (iambic pentameter rhymed in two lines); the three unities of time, space and action should be strictly observed; regularity in construction should be adhered to, and type characters rather than individuals should be represented.戏剧必须用英雄体偶剧(抑扬五音步的押韵双行诗)写就;时间,地点,事件三要素必须要遵循;写作的规矩必须要遵守,而作品中的人物要代表一类人,而不是个性化。
  12. But it had a lasting wholesome influence upon English literature. (套话)但新古典主义对英国文学史产生过持久的全面的影响。
  13. The poetic techniques and certain classical graces such as order, good form, unified structure, clarity and conciseness of language developed in this period have become a permanent heritage.在这一时期出现的诗歌技巧与古典气质,如秩序,优美的格式,统一的结构,简明的语言都成为永恒的文学传统。
  14. The mid-century was, however, predominated by a newly rising literary form---the modern English novel, which, contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of the common English people.十八世纪中叶,还兴起一种崭新的文学形式----英国现代小说,这种文学与传统贵族的骑士文学相反,着重描写英国普通百姓的生活。
  15. Among the pioneers were Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Laurence Sterne, Tobias George Smollett, and Oliver Goldsmith.英国现代小说的先驱有丹尼尔.迪福,塞缪尔.理查德,亨利.费尔丁,劳伦斯.斯泰思,托比亚斯.斯摩莱特以及奥立弗.哥尔斯密。
  16. From the middle part to the end of the century there was also an apparent shift of interest from the classic literary tradition to originality and imagination, from society to individual, and from the didactic to the confessional, inspirational and prophetic.从十八世纪中叶至十八世纪末,还出现了古典文学传统向独创性与丰富联想性的转移,社会描写向个性描写的转移,说教向忏悔,鼓励及预示的转移。
  17. Gothic novels---mostly stories of mystery and horror.哥特式小说----主要讲述恐怖神秘的故事。
  18. Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal being generally regarded as the best model of satire, not only of the period but also in the whole English literary history.乔纳森.斯威夫特的《一个小小的建议》被公认为英国文学史上讽刺作品的经典。
  (IJohn Bunyan约翰.班扬
  19. As a stout Puritan, he had made a conscientious study of the Bible and firmly believed in salvation through spiritual struggle.作为一个坚定的清教徒,他认真学习《圣经》,并深信人一定能通过精神上的奋斗得到拯救。
  20. he made it possible for the reader of the least education to share the pleasure of reading his novel and to relive the experience of his characters.他的语言具体生动,情节鲜明真实,连没受过教育的人也能享受到阅读他的作品的乐趣。
  21. Bunyan’s other works include Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, The Life and Death of Mr.Badman, The Holy War and The Pilgrim’s Progress, Part II.班扬其他的作品还有《罪人头目的赦免》,《拜得门先生生死录》,《圣战》以及《天路历程》第二部
  22. The Vanity Fair.名利场(节选《天路历程》第一部)
  The Pilgrim’s Progress is the most successful religious allegory in the English language. Its purpose is to urge people to abide by Christian doctrines and seek salvation through constant struggles with their own weaknesses and all kinds of social evils.《天路历程》是英文作品中最成功的宗教寓言。它的主旨是让人们遵循基督教教义,并通过不断战胜自身弱点与身外的邪恶来获得拯救。
  (IIAlexander Pope亚历山大.蒲伯
  23. Pope, a very sensitive man, would strike back hard, and in the constant verbal battles he developed a style of biting satire.蒲伯本身是个很敏感的人,自然要用笔墨来反击,在此期间,他发展了犀利的讽刺文体。
  24. For him the supreme value was order---cosmic order, political order, social order, aesthetic order, and this emphasis on order found expression in all of his works.对他来说秩序有着至高无上的价值-----宇宙秩序,政治秩序,社会秩序,美学秩序。这种对秩序与理性的强调深入到了他各部作品中。
  25. Pope made his name as a great poet with the publication of An Essay on Criticism in 1711. The next year, he published The Rape of the Lock, a finest mock epic.1711年,他出版了散文《论批评》,从此奠定了他在诗坛的地位。次年,他又出版了《夺发记》,一部极妙的讽刺史诗。
  26. Pope was the greatest poet of his time. He strongly advocated neoclassicism, emphasizing that literary works should be judged by classical rules of order, reason, logic, restrained emotion, good taste and decorum.蒲伯是当时最伟大的诗人,他大力提倡新古典主义,强调文学作品的优劣应由古典的秩序尺度,理性,逻辑,情感的克制,高雅的品位以及是否体面,正派来衡量。
  27. He worked painstakingly on his poems, developed a satiric, concise, smooth, graceful and well-balanced style.他致力于诗歌创作,发展了讽刺,简练,通顺,优雅,平衡的风格。
  (IIIDaniel Defoe丹尼尔.
  28. His quick mind, abundant energy and never-failing enthusiasm always brought him back on his feet after a fall.他过人的才智,充沛的精力,旺盛而持久的热情总是使他在失败后能重新站起。
  29. Robinson Crusoe, an adventure story very much in the spirit of the time, is universally considered his masterpiece.《鲁宾逊漂流记》是一部体现时代精神的游记历险小说,是笛福的代表作。
  30. In most of his works, he gave his praise to the hard-working, study middle class and showed his sympathy for the downtrodden, unfortunate poor.在他大部分作品中,他都表达了对勤劳,坚强的中产阶级的赞誉,以及对破落不幸的穷苦人的同情。
  31. Defoe was a very good story-teller.笛福很会讲故事。
  32. His sentences are sometimes short, crisp and plain, and sometimes long and rambling, which leave on the reader an impression of casual narration.他的语句时而短小干脆,朴素直白,时而又气势磅礴,泼墨如水,为读者留下了叙述自由悠闲的印象。
  33. His language is smooth, easy, colloquial and mostly vernacular.他的措辞简朴易懂又口语化,有时甚至是俗语方言。
  34. There is nothing artificial in his language: it is common English at its beat.他的语言毫无造作,完全是大众英语。
  35. Robinson Crusoe: The novel consists actually of three parts.《鲁宾逊漂流记》:整部小说分为三个部分
  The realistic account of the successful struggle of Robinson single-handedly against the hostile nature forms the best part of the novel. Robinson is here a real hero: a typical eighteenth-century English middle-class man., the pioneer colonist.其中对鲁宾逊徒手与恶劣的大自然作斗争的描述是小说最精彩的部分。在此,鲁宾逊是真正的英雄:一个典型的英国十八世纪中产阶级人士。
  (IVJonathan Swift乔纳森.斯威夫特
  36. In 1704 he published two powerful satires on corruption in religion and learning, A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, which established his name as a satirist.1704年,他针对宗教和学术界的腐败出版了两篇犀利的讽刺小品,一为《桶的故事》,一为《书籍的战斗》。这两篇作品奠定了他在讽刺作品中的地位。
  37. Even today Swift is still respected as a national hero in Ireland.直至今日,斯威夫特还被尊为爱尔兰的民族英雄。
  38. In his opinion, human nature is seriously and permanently flawed. To better human life, enlightenment is needed.他认为人性永远有着严重的瑕疵,为了使人的生活更美好,人们需要启蒙。
  39. In his writings, although he intends not to condemn but to reform and improve human nature and human institutions.在他的作品中,他提倡的不是谴责,而是采取行为改良人性与人为的机构。
  40. His“A Modest Proposal”is generally taken as a perfect model.他的《一个温和的建议》被认为是一篇完善的典范。
  41. Swift is one of the greatest masters of English prose.斯威夫特是一名优秀的散文作家。
  42. He defined a good style as“proper words in proper places.”Clear, simple, concrete diction, uncomplicated sentence structure, economy and conciseness of language mark all his writings---essays, poems and novels.他创立了一种良好的文风,即“在恰当的地方用恰当的词”。无论是散文,诗歌,还是小说,简洁,具体,精确,没有复杂的句式永远是他的写作风格。
  43. Swift’s chief works are: A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, The Drapier’s Letters(note:Drapier=Swift, alias), Gulliver’s Travels and A Modest Proposal.斯威夫特的作品主要有《桶的故事》,《书籍的战斗》,《德拉皮尔的信》,《格列佛游记》和《一个温和的建议》。
  44. Gulliver’s Travels: Jonathan’s best fictional work, the book contains four parts. Its social significance is great and its exploration into human nature profound.《格列佛游记》:是斯威夫特最精彩的一部小说,全书分为四卷,它具有重大的社会意义,同时对人性的探索与揭示也是深刻的。
  (VHenry Fielding亨利.费尔丁
  45. During his career as a dramatist, Fielding had attempted a considerable number of forms of play.在他戏剧创作生涯里,费尔丁曾尝试过许多不同的戏剧模式。
  46. Of all his plays, the best known are The Coffee-House Politician, The Tragedy of Tragedies, Pasquin, and The Historical Register for the Year 1736.他的作品中最有名的要数《咖啡屋的政治家》,《悲剧中的悲剧》,《巴斯昆》,《1736历史年鉴》。
  47. a“comic epic in prose,”whose subject is“the true ridiculous”in human nature.“散文体喜剧史诗”,主题是人类本性中的荒唐,对人性进行了真实的讽刺。
  48. The dominating qualities of the novel are its excellent character-portrayal, timely entrances and exits, robustness of tone and hilarious, hearty humor.小说的突出特点是出色的人物刻画,及时的出场退场,笔调的遒劲及令人会心的幽默。
  49. “The Great Man, properly considered, is no better than a great gangster”----The History of Jonathan Wild the Great从某种意义上说,伟大的人物无异于“伟大”的匪徒--------《伟大的乔纳森怀尔德》。
  50. The History of Tom Jones is a masterpiece on the subject of human nature.费尔丁的代表作《汤姆.琼斯:一个弃儿的故事》主题是对人性的讽刺。
  51. the purpose of the novel was not just to amuse, but to instruct, the object of novel was to present a faithful picture of life, “the just copies of human manners,” with sound teaching woven into their texture, so as to teach men to know themselves, their proper-spheres and appropriate manners.,小说不仅供娱乐,而且更有教育意义,他的小说的主旨是要真实地展示生活,使之成为“人类态度的完整拷贝”,并将说教巧妙的引入作品,教导人们认识自己,寻求适宜的人生态度。
  52. Fielding has been regarded by some as“Father of the English novel,”for his contribution to the establishment of the form of the modern novel.费尔丁被一些人尊为“英国小说之父”,因为他为现代小说模式的创立作出很大贡献。
  53. he was the first to set out , both in theory and practice, to write specifically a“comic epic in prose,”the first to give the modern novel its structure and style.他第一个在理论与实践上创造了“散文体喜剧史诗”,并第一个为现代小说确立了结构和风格。
  54. He“thinks the thought”of all his characters, so he is able to present not only their external behaviors but also the internal workings of their minds.作者以角色的口吻去“想”,因此不仅可以表述人物的外在行为,还可深入刻画其内心的思想活动。
  55. Fielding‘s language is easy, unlaboured and familiar, but extremely vivid and vigorous. His sentences are always distinguished by logic and rhythm, and his structure carefully planed toward an inevitable ending.费尔丁的创作语言自然流畅,通俗易懂,同时又栩栩如生并富有活力,他的句子以逻辑性和韵律性见长,小说结尾总是水到渠成,顺理成章。
  56. Tom Jones, the novel consists of 18 books. Tom, the titular hero of the story, he became a national hero, he---honest, kind-hearted, high-spirited, loyal, and brave, but impulsive, wanting prudence and full of animal spirits.《汤姆.琼斯》共18卷,汤姆曾一度成为全国人民心中的英雄,他----诚实,善良,高尚,忠诚,勇敢,同时也有着易冲动,鲁莽和野性难驯的缺点。                                                                                                                                                          57. Tom Jones brings its author the name of the“Prose Home.”The panoramic view it provides of the 18th-century English country.《汤姆.琼斯》为费尔丁赢得了“散文荷马”的盛名,小说为读者提供了一幅英国18世纪乡村与城市的宏伟的全景图。
  (VISamuel Johnson塞缪尔.约翰逊
  58. The years between 1737 and 1755, he did translations, wrote poems, essays and so on.1737年至1755年这段时间对他来说充满了艰辛:他做过翻译,写过诗,为书商编书,编辑杂志。
  59. In his famous Literary Club, where he was surrounded with respect by the elite of the literary circles.在他的文学社里,周围围满了敬仰他的文学精英。
  60. Johnson was an energetic and versatile writer. He had a hand in all the different branches of literary activities.约翰逊精力充沛,多才多艺,他还涉足各种各样的文学领域。
  61. His chief works include pomes:“London”, and“The Vanity of Human Wishes”; a romance: The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia; a tragedy: Irene.他的主要作品有诗歌:《伦敦》,《人类欲望的虚幻》骑士浪漫诗:《拉塞拉斯的历史》,《阿比西尼亚王子》;一部悲剧:《艾琳》。
  62. As a lexicographer, Johnson distinguished himself as the author of the first English dictionary by an Englishman----A Dictionary of the English Language, a gigantic task which Johnson undertook single-handedly and finished in over seven years.作为词典编撰者,约翰逊是编撰英文词典的第一个英国人,作品为《英文大词典》,这部巨著是塞缪尔.约翰逊花了七年时间独自完成的。
  63. Johnson was the last great neoclassicist enlightener in the later eighteenth century. He was very much concerned with the theme of the vanity of human wishes.约翰逊是十八世纪下半叶最后一位新古典主义启蒙文学家,他十分关心人类欲望的虚幻,几乎他所有的作品都含有这样的主题。
  64. His sentences are long and well structured, interwoven with parallel words and phrases.他使用的句子一般较长,但结构工整,包含有许多排比,对仗。
  65. Reading his works gives the reader the impression that he is talking with a very learned man.读他的小说会给人一种感觉,他在与一位非常博学的人士对话。
  (VII)Richard Brinsley Sheridan理查.比.谢立丹
  66. The year 1777 saw the appearance of his masterpiece The School for Scandal, which brought him quite a fortune.1777年,谢立丹的代表作《造谣学校》出版,使他大发其财。
  67. His plays, especially The Rivals and The School for Scandal, are generally regarded as important links between the masterpiece of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw, and as true classics in English comedy.他的代表作《情敌》和《造谣学校》被认为是上承莎士比亚,下接萧伯纳的纽带,是真正的英国古典派喜剧。
  68. In his play, morality is the constant theme.他的作品永恒的主题是道德。
  69. The School for Scandal is mainly a story about two brothers, the hypocritical Joseph Surface and the good-natured, imprudent, spendthrift Charles Surface. The play ends with great disgrace for Joseph and double bliss for Charles. It is a sharp satire on the moral degeneracy of the aristocratic-bourgeois society in the eighteenth-century England. No wonder, the play has been Regarded as the best comedy since Shakespeare.《造谣学校》主要讲述了两个兄弟的故事,一个是伪君子约瑟夫.萨尔菲斯,另一个是放荡不羁但心地善良的查尔斯.萨尔菲斯。戏剧的结尾约瑟夫名声扫地,而查尔斯既获得了美人的芳心,又获得了丰厚的遗产,而梯泽尔夫人在丈夫的感化下与其重归于好。《造谣学校》是对18世纪英国贵族资产阶级的道德败坏,对无聊的富人恶意的制造谣言,对上层社会骄奢淫逸的生活以及对在高贵生活方式和高尚道德准则的掩饰下的道德沦丧与虚伪假善的辛辣讽刺。毫无疑问,它被认为是自莎士比亚以来最出色的喜剧。
  (VIIThomas Gray托马斯.格雷
  70. he declined the Poet laureateship in 1757.1757年,他竟谢绝了授予他的诗人桂冠奖。
  71. In contrast to those professional writers, Gray’s literary output was small.与其余专职作家不同,格雷作品极少。
  72. His masterpiece,“Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard”was published in 1751. The poem once and for all established his fame as the leader of the sentimental poetry of the day, especially“the Graveyard School”.1757年,他的代表作《写在教堂墓地的挽歌》出版这首诗奠定了他在当时作为感伤主义诗歌创始人的地位,尤其是从此他便成为“墓地诗歌”流派的代表。
  73. His other poems include“Ode on the Spring”,“Ode on the Death of a Favourite cat”and so on. (Ode:….赞,颂)他的其他作品还有《春之颂》,《伊顿公学展望》,《爱猫之死》等等。
  74. A conscientious artist of the first rate, Gray wrote slowly and carefully, painstakingly seeking perfection of form and phrase.格雷创作态度认真,作品诞生速度慢,却精益求精。
  75. “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” is regarded as Gray’s best and most representative work. In this poem, Gray reflects on death, the sorrows of life, and the mysteries of human life with a touch of his personal melancholy. The poem abounds in images and and arouses sentiment in the bosom of every reader, The poem has been ranked among the best of the eighteenth century English poetry.《写在教堂墓地的挽歌》是雷格最优秀的代表作,创作历时八年,诗中内容与格雷的知己理查.韦斯特的去世有关。其中,格雷揭示了生与死的愁苦与神秘,并略述了自己忧伤的心情。诗中富于比喻,并给读者带来深深的伤感。这首诗被列为英国十八世纪最优秀的诗歌之一。

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