英汉翻译技巧 7 句子结构的转换

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  在翻译较复杂的长句时我们要运用到多种翻译技巧,有时通过词的引申、词性的转换或句子成分的转换还是不能确切表达原文的含义,这时就要突破原文的形式,改变句子的整个结构,使之既忠实于原文的意义又符合汉语的表达习惯。这是英译汉时不可缺少的一个手段,下面举例说明常用的句子结构的转换法:
  1. 成分分译法。既把原文中较长的句子成分,或不易安排的句子成分分出来另作处理,一般译为汉语短语或独立句。如:
  The very short wavelengths of ultrasound make a great difference in what ordinary sound waves can do.
  译文:超声波的波长极短,其功能与普通声波相比大不相同。(主语分译)
  It is common knowledge that weight is a pull exerted on an object by the earth.
  译文:众所周知,重量是地球作用在物体上的引力。(谓语分译)
  A little yellow, ragged, lame, unshaven beggar.
  译文:一个要饭的,身材短小,面黄肌瘦,衣衫褴褛,瘸腿,满脸短髭。(定语分译)
  Illogically, she had expected some kind of miracle solution.
  译文:她期待着会有某些奇迹般的解决方法,这是不合情理的事。(状语分译)
  2. 句子变换法。主要包括几下几种方法:
  A. 把原文中的两个或两个以上的简单句译成一个单句,如:
  His father had a small business in the city of Pisa. This city is in the north of Italy near the sea.
  译文:他的父亲在意大利北部近海的比萨做小生意。
  B. 把原文中的主从复合句(complex sentence)译成单句。如:
  One must study hard before one could succeed in mastering a foreign language.
  译文:一个人必须勤学苦练,才能精通一种外国语。
  C. 把定语从句译成状语从句。如:
  The ambassador was giving a dinner for a few people whom he wished especially to talk to or to hear from.
  译文:大使只宴请了几个人,因为他特地想和这些人谈谈,听听他们的意见。(表原因)
  He insisted on building another house, which he had no use for.
  译文:他坚持要再造一幢房子,尽管他并无此需要。(表让步)
  There was something original, independent, and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them.
  译文:这方案富于创造性,独出心裁,很有气势,所以他们都很喜欢。(表结果)

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