The Science of Persuasion
  By Robert B. Cialdini
  If leadership, at its most basic, consists of getting things done through others, then persuasion is one of the leader's essential tools. Many executives have assumed that this tool is beyond their grasp, available only to the charismatic and the eloquent. Over the past several decades, though, experimental psychologists have learned which methods reliably lead people to concede, comply, or change. Their research shows that persuasion is governed by several principles that can be taught and applied. 
  The first principle is that people are more likely to follow someone who is similar to them than someone who is not. Wise managers, then, enlist peers to help make their cases. Second, people are more willing to cooperate with those who are not only like them but who like them as well. So it's worth the time to uncover real similarities and offer genuine praise.
  Third, experiments confirm the intuitive truth that people tend to treat you the way you treat them. It's sound policy to do a favor before seeking one. Fourth, individuals are more likely to keep promises they make voluntarily and explicitly. The message for managers here is to get commitments in writing. Fifth, studies show that people really do defer to experts. So before they attempt to exert influence, executives should take pains to establish their own expertise and not assume that it's self-evident. Finally, people want more of a commodity when it's scarce; it follows, then, that exclusive information is more persuasive than widely available data. 
  Pessimistic Outlook Does Harm to Your Health
  By Anna Roufos
  A growing amount of research shows a pessimistic outlook can take a huge toll on your health. This may be because pessimists are not as good as optimists at handling stress, which taxes the immune system and causes other health problems, such as high blood pressure. Optimists go into situations with more confidence, so events seem less threatening and stressful. And in situations where stress is unavoidable, positive thinkers also have stronger coping methods. Looking at the bright side may also lead to a longer life. Researchers have found that those who were pessimists had a 19 percent increased risk of death. Studies of HIV patients also have found that the health of optimists doesn't decline as rapidly.  
  Fortunately, even a confirmed negativist can change. To start, experts recommend using a trick called creative accounting. Keep a mental checklist of all the good things that happen to you. Simply focusing on the positive can boost your mood. You can also try to avoid upward comparison. There will always be someone prettier and wealthier, but constantly compare yourself to them will leave your feeling down and envious.
  Finally, recognize how your mood affects your outlook. Optimists know that if they are in good spirits, their day-to-day experiences and interactions are more positive. So see if you can muster a smile. The result might be a happier-and healthier-you.
  MBAs No Longer Worth Extra Cash
  By Del Jones
  When college graduates apply for a job at California, those with an MBA assume they are worth an extra $10,000 to $15,000. Panagraph CEO Mark Astone, who has an MBA, says they're not.
  "If you put the same effort into a job, career and getting experience, you'll be better off," he says. Astone is not alone among chief executives. "Most people with MBAs can't manage themselves out of a paper bag," says Winans International CEO, Ken Winans, who has an MBA from the University of San Francisco (1987) and teaches MBA students at a college in California.
  Gary Griffiths, CEO of a tech company, told his 25-year-old son to save his time and money. "Don't interrupt a career unless you are bogged down in a dead-end job," says Gary Griffiths.
  Management Consultant McKinsey & Co. still competes for top MBA graduates. But the percentage of its hires with MBAs has dropped from 61% in 1993 to 43% today, because it finds students with law, medical and other degrees equally successful. 
  "We don't believe the world's best talent is exclusively locked up on MBA campuses," says McKinsey spokesman.
  Even President Bush, the first president with an MBA (Harvard, 1975), is finding the degree has lost some shine after Enron and other corporate scandals.
  Jenet Noriega CEO of Empyrean Asset Management, was studying for an MBA when she dropped out to get a doctorate in industrial psychology. She says the MBA will go down as a fad.
  1. 说服的技巧
  如果当领导说到底就是让别人做事,那么说服便是领导者极为重要的方法之一。很多经理人都曾认为自己学不会这种方法,只有那些具有魅力和口才的人才能够驾驭它。然而,通过过去几十年的研究,试验心理学家掌握了能够使他人 让步、服从或改变的可靠方法。他们的研究表明,说服是有原理可循的,而这些原理人们是可以学会应用的。
  1. 说服的技巧
  第三,试验证实了“你如何待人,人如何待你”这一直观事实。先助人而后求助,这才是良策。第四,每个人一般都会信守自愿而明确做出的承诺。这里经理人得到的提示是,要获得书面承诺。第五,研究表明人们的确愿意服从专家的领导。因此,在试图发挥影响力之前,经理人应该努力确立自己的专家信誉,不要认为这是不言而喻的。最后一条原则是,人们对稀缺商品有更大的需求,所以独家信息比广为人知的数据更具说服力。   (摘自2002年9月《英语文摘》)
  2. 消极思维有碍健康
  最后,请注意情绪是如何影响你对事物的看法的。乐观主义者懂得,只要保持良好的精神状态,他们每一天的经历和交往就会更加积极。所以,这就要看你是否能够笑容常在了。保持乐观,其结果很可能是保持了一个健康快乐的你。 (摘自2002年8月《英语文摘》)
  2. 消极思维有碍健康
  3. 工商管理硕士风光不再
  Empyrean资产管理公司首席执行官詹尼特·诺列加曾在学习工商管理硕士学位课程时退学,转而攻读工业心理学博士学位。她说,工商管理硕士学位就像流行时尚,随着时光的流逝会渐渐被人遗忘。 (摘自2002年10月《英语沙龙》)
  3. 工商管理硕士风光不再

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