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2018年复旦大学考博英语试题回忆版

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  2018年复旦大学考博英语试题回忆


  题型和分布与往年一样:15分填空(30个)、40分阅读(20个)、10分完形填空、20分汉译英、15分作文


  1. Autism


  2. Fashion and Women


  3. American Reunions


  In her novel of "Reunion, American Style", Rona Jaffe suggests that a class reunion "is more than a sentimental journey. It is also a way of answering the question that lies at the back of nearly all our minds. Did they do better than I?"


  Jaffes observation may be misplaced but not completely lost. According to a study conducted by social psychologist Jack Sparacino, the overwhelming majority who attend reunions arent there invidiously to compare their recent accomplishments with those of their former classmates. Instead, they hope, primarily, to relive their earlier successes.


  Certainly, a few return to show their former classmates how well they have done; others enjoy observing the changes that have occurred in their classmates (not always in themselves, of course). But the majority who attend their class reunions do so to relive the good times they remember having when they were younger. In his study, Sparacino found that, as high school students, attendees had been more popular, more often regarded as attractive, and more involved in extracurricular activities than those classmates who chose not to attend. For those who turned up at their reunions, then, the old times were also the good times!


  It would appear that Americans have a special fondness for reunions, judging by their prevalence. Major league baseball players, fraternity members, veterans groups, high school and college graduates, and former Boy Scouts all hold reunions on a regular basis. In addition, family reunions frequently attract blood relatives from faraway places who spend considerable money and time to reunite.


  Actually, in their affection for reuniting with friends, family or colleagues, Americans are probably no different from any other people, except that Americans have created a mind-boggling number and variety of institutionalized forms of gatherings to facilitate the satisfaction of this desire. Indeed, reunions have increasingly become formal events that are organized on a regular basis and, in the process, they have also become big business.


  Shell Norris of Class Reunion, Inc., says that Chicago alone has 1,500 high school reunions each year. A conservative estimate on the national level would be 10,000 annually. At one time, all high school reunions were organized by volunteers, usually female homemakers. In the last few years, however, as more and more women have entered the labour force, alumni reunions are increasingly being planned by specialized companies rather than by part-time volunteers.


  The first college reunion was held by the alumni of Yale University in 1792. Graduates of Pennsylvania, Princeton, Stanford, and Brown followed suit. And by the end of the 19th century, most 4-year institutions were holding alumni reunions.


  The variety of college reunions is impressive. At Princeton, alumni parade through the town wearing their class uniforms and singing their alma mater. At Marietta College, they gather for a dinner-dance on a steamship cruising the Ohio River.


  Clearly, the thought of cruising on a steamship or marching through the streets is usually not, by itself, sufficient reason for large numbers of alumni to return to campus. Alumni who decide to attend their reunions share a common identity based on the years they spent together as undergraduates. For this reason, universities that somehow establish a common bond – for example, because they are relatively small or especially prestigious - tend to draw substantial numbers of their alumni to reunions. In an effort to enhance this common identity, larger colleges and universities frequently build their class reunions on participation in smaller units, such as departments or schools. Or they encourage "affinity reunions" for groups of former cheerleaders, editors, fraternity members, musicians, members of military organizations on campus, and the like.


  Of course, not every alumnus is fond of his or her alma mater. Students who graduated during the late 1960s may be especially reluctant to get involved in alumni events. They were part of the generation that conducted sit-ins and teach-ins directed at university administrators, protested military recruitment on campus and marched against "establishment politics." If this generation has a common identity, it may fall outside of their university ties - or even be hostile to them. Even as they enter their middle years, alumni who continue to hold unpleasant memories of college during this period may not wish to attend class reunions.


  41. According to the passage, Sparacinos study


  A. provided strong evidence for Jaffes statement.


  B. showed that attendees tended to excel in high school study.


  C. found that interest in reunions was linked with school experience.


  D. found evidence for attendees intense desire for showing off success.


  答案:C


  42. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a distinct feature of U.S. class reunions?


  A. U.S. class reunions are usually occasions to show off ones recent success.


  B. Reunions are regular and formal events organized by professional agencies.


  C. Class reunions have become a profitable business.


  D. Class reunions have brought about a variety of activities.


  答案:A


  43. What mainly attracts many people to return to campus for reunion?


  A. The variety of activities for class reunion.


  B. The special status their university enjoys.


  C. Shared experience beyond the campus.


  D. Shared undergraduate experience on campus.


  答案:D


  44. The rhetorical function of the first paragraph is to


  A. introduce Rona Jeffes novel.


  B. present the authors counterargument.


  C. serve as prelude to the authors argument.


  D. bring into focus contrasting opinions.


  答案:D


  45. What is the passage mainly about?


  A. Reasons for popularity and (non)attendance for alumni reunions.


  B. A historical perspective for alumni reunions in the United States.


  C. Alumni reunions and American university traditions.


  D. Alumni reunion and its social and economic implications.


  答案:A


  4. The Return of Artificial Intelligence


  It is becoming acceptable again to talk of computers performing human tasks such as problem-solving and pattern-recognition


  After years in the wilderness, the term 'artificial intelligence' (Al) seems poised to make a comeback. Al was big in the 1980s but vanished in the 1990s. It re-entered public consciousness with the release of Al, a movie about a robot boy. This has ignited public debate about Al, but the term is also being used once more within the computer industry. Researchers, executives and marketing people are now using the expression without irony or inverted commas. And it is not always hype. The term is being applied, with some justification, to products that depend on technology that was originally developed by Al researchers. Admittedly, the rehabilitation of the term has a long way to go, and some firms still prefer to avoid using it. But the fact that others are starting to use it again suggests that Al has moved on from being seen as an over- ambitious and under-achieving field of research.


  The field was launched, and the term 'artificial intelligence' coined, at a conference in 1956 by a group of researchers that included Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Herbert Simon and Alan Newell, all of whom went on to become leading figures in the field. The expression provided An attractive but informative name for a research programmer that encompassed such previously disparate fields as operations research, cybernetics, logic and computer science. The goal they shared was an attempt to capture or mimic human abilities using machines. That said, different groups of researchers attacked different problems, from speech recognition to chess playing, in different ways; Al unified the field in name only. But it was a term that captured the public imagination.


  Most researchers agree that Al peaked around 1985. A public reared on science-fiction movies and excited by the growing power of computers had high expectations. For years, Al researchers had implied that a breakthrough was just around the corner. Marvin Minsky said in 1967 that within a generation the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' would be substantially solved. Prototypes of medical-diagnosis programs and speech recognition appeared to be making progress. It proved to be a false dawn. Thinking computers and household robots failed to materialize, and a backlash ensued. 'There was undueoptimismin the early 1980s; says David Leake, a researcher at Indiana University. 'Then when people realized these were hard problems, there was retrenchment. By the late 1980s, the term Al was being avoided by many researchers, who opted instead to align themselves with specific sub-disciplines such as neural networks, agent technology, case-based reasoning, and so on.'


  Ironically, in some ways Al was a victim of its own success. Whenever an apparently mundane problem was solved, such as building a system that could land an aircraft unattended, the problem was deemed not to have been Al in the first place. 'If it works, it can't be Al' as Dr Leake characterizes. The effect of repeatedly moving the goal-posts in this way was that Al came to refer to 'blue-sky' research that was still years away from commercialization. Researchers joked that Al stood for 'almost implemented'. Meanwhile, the technologies that made it onto the market, such as speech recognition, language translation and decision-support software, were no longer regarded as Al. Yet all three once fell well within the umbrella of Al research.


  But the tide may now be turning, according to Dr Leake. HNC Software of San Diego, backed by a government agency, reckon that their new approach to artificial intelligence is the most powerful and promising approach ever discovered. HNC claim that their system, based on a cluster of 30 processors, could be used to spot camouflaged vehicles on a battlefield or extract a voice signal from a noisy background - tasks humans can do well, but computers cannot. 'Whether or not their technology lives up to the claims made for it, the fact that HNC are emphasizing the use of Al is itself an interesting development' says Dr Leake.


  Another factor that may boost the prospects for Al in the near future is that investors are now looking for firms using clever technology, rather than just a clever business model, to differentiate themselves. In particular, the problem of information overload, exacerbated by the growth of e-mail and the explosion in the number of web pages, means there are plenty of opportunities for new technologies to help filter and categoriseinformation - classic Al problems. That may mean that more artificial intelligence companies will start to emerge to meet this challenge.


  The 1969 film, 2001: A Space Odyssey, featured an intelligent computer called HAL 9000. As well as understanding and speaking English, HAL could play chess and even learned to lip read. HAL thus encapsulated the optimism of the 1960s that intelligent computers would be widespread by 2001. But 2001 has been and gone, and there is still no sign of a HAL-like computer. Individual systems can play chess or transcribe speech, but a general theory of machine intelligence still remains elusive. It may be, however, that the comparison with HAL no longer seems quite so important, and Al can now be judged by what it can do, rather than by how well it matches up to a 30-year-old science-fiction film. 'People are beginning to realize that there are impressive things that these systems can do,' says Dr Leake hopefully.


  重回人工智能


  谈论计算机执行人类才能执行的任务,如解决问题、模式识别,再一次成为受欢迎的话题


  在失宠数年之后,“人工智能”这个词好像在准备着东山再起。人工智能在20世纪80年代非常流行,但到了20世纪90年代却突然消声匿迹了。随着《人工智能》这部关于机器男孩的电影的上映,这个词又重新回到公众的意识之中。虽然这部电影引发了公众对于人工智能的辩论,但这个词还是在计算机领域再次被使用。研究人员、行政管理人员和营销人员使用这个词的时候不再带有嘲讽的意味,也不再加引号。关于这个词,也不再总是天花乱坠的宣传。现在,这个术语逐渐被合理地应用到某些产品中,而这些产品正是依托原来人工智能研究人员开发的技术。诚然,这个词的复活还有待时日,而且有些公司仍尽量避免使用它。但是其他人已经开始再次使用这个词汇,这表明人们渐渐地不再将人工智能看作是好高骛远、无所建数的研究的代名词。


  1956年,一组包括Marvin Minsky、John McCarthy、Herbert Simon和Alan Newell在内的研究人员在一次大会上创造了“人工智能”这一名词,并开创了这一研究领域。这几位研究人员后来都成了这一领域的领军人物。这个研究领域涵盖了先前几个毫不相关的领域,如工序研究、控制论、逻辑和计算机科学。而人工智能一词为这个研究领域起了一个吸引人而又有实质内涵的名字。这些研究的共同目标就是试图用机器来模拟或再现人类的能力。说到这,需要指出的是,不同的研究小组用不同的方法解决不同的问题,包括从语音识别到下棋等众多方面,人工智能只是在名字上将这个领域统一了起来,但这个词却引发了公众的无限遐想。


  大多数研究人员都认为1985年是人工智能的鼎盛时期。由科幻电影培育起来的、对计算机日益增强的能力激动不已的公众,对人工智能抱着很高的期望。多年来,人工智能的研究人员一直暗示成功近在咫尺。1967年,Marvin Minsky曾说,建立人工智能的实质性问题在一代人的时间里就将得以解决。医疗诊断程序和语音识别软件的雏形似乎都在取得进展。但最终这一切却成了一场空欢喜。有思维能力的计算机和家庭机器人都没能问世,紧接着又出现了强烈反对的舆论。印第安纳人学的研究员David Leake说:“20世纪80年代早期的人们是过于乐观了。此后人们意识到这些问题并不好解决,于是就纷纷退出。到了20世纪80年代晚期,许多研究人员都避免使用人工智能这个词,转而称自己从事的是一些具体分支学科的研究,如神经网络、智能主体技术和个案推理等等。”


  颇具讽刺意义的是,在某些方面,人工智能反而成为自己成功的受害者。每当解决了一个现实世界中的问题,如建造了一个可以无人在场的飞机降落系统,人们都不会将此归功于人工智能。正如Leake博士所说:“起作用的肯定不是人工智能。”这种不断拔高研究目标所造成的后果使有关人工智能的研究成了一种纯理论的研究,要实现其商业化还要很多年的时间。研究人员打趣说人工智能就是“接近完成”的代名词。与此同时,将人工智能推向市场的许多技术,如语音识别、语言翻译和决策支持软件,已不再被认为是人工智能,然而这三项技术曾经一度是完全属于人工智能研究领域的。


  而据Leake博士所说,现在这种趋势可能要开始扭转了。圣地亚哥的HNC软件得到了某个政府机构的支持,这一软件的研究人员认为他们处理人工智能的新方法是迄今为止所发现的最有效、最具前景的方法。HNC称,他们这一由30个处理器支持的系统可以在战场上发现伪装的车辆或从嘈杂的环境中提取某一声音信号。这些任务原来都是人可以做到、但计算机做不到的。Leake博士说:“无论他们的技术能否达到他们所宣称的水准, HNC强调自己在使用人工智能技术本身就是一个颇有意思的进展。”


  在不远的将来,还可能会有另外一个使人工智能前景更光辉灿烂的因素。为了突显自己的个性,投资者不再单纯地寻求一种精明的商业模式,转而寻求与利用智能技术的公司的合作。电子邮件和网页数量的激增加剧了信息超载问题,这一特别的问题意味着新技术在信息过滤和分类方面将大有可为,而这些其实都是人工智能要解决的典型的问题。这就意味着更多的人工智能公司会应运而生。


  1969年一部名为《2001太空漫游》的电影,主要描述了一个叫HAL 9000的智能计算机的故事。HAL除了能懂英语和说英语之外,还可以下棋甚至通过观察人的嘴唇动作来理解话意。因此HAL集中体现了20世纪60年代的乐观情绪,认为到了2001年,智能计算机将得到广泛应用。但2001年已成为过去,HAL那样的智能计算机仍然没有丝毫出现的迹象。单独的系统可以下棋或转换语音,但是仍然没有一套关于机器智能的宏观理论。或许,与HAL之间的比较已变得不那么重要,人工智能可以凭借自己的作为得到公正的评判,而无需与一个30多年前的科幻电影中的人工智能机器进行比照。Leake博士满怀希望地说:“人们开始意识到人工智能系统是可以做出许多出色的工作的。”


  完形填空:


  To take an example, therefore, from a very trifling manufacture, but one in which the division of labour has been very often taken notice of, the trade of a pin-maker: a workman not educated to this business (which the division of labour has rendered a distinct trade), nor acquainted with the use of the machinery employed in it (to the invention of which the same division of labour has probably given occasion), could scarce, perhaps, with his utmost industry, make one pin in a day, and certainly could not make twenty. But in the way in which this business is now carried on, not only the whole work is a peculiar trade, but it is divided into a number of branches, of which the greater part is likewise peculiar trades. One man draws out the wire; another straight sit; a third cuts it; a fourth points it; a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations; to put it on is a peculiar business; to whiten the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them. I have seen a small manufactory of this kind, where ten men only were employed, and where some of them consequently performed two or three distinct operations. But though they were very poor, and therefore but indifferently accommodated with the necessary machinery, they could, when they exerted themselves, make among them about twelve pounds of pins in a day. There are in a pound upwards of four thousand pins of a middling size. Those ten persons, therefore, could make among them upwards of forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore, making a tenth part of forty-eight thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand eight hundred pins in a day. But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thousand eight hundredth, part of what they are at present capable of performing, in consequence of a proper division and combination of their different operations.


  举一个小型制造业的例子——制针业,因为其中的劳动分工很容易被注意到。没有受过专门培训的工人(分工使得制针业成为一种专门职业),不知道怎样使用相应的机器(机器的出现可能也是分工的结果),即使再怎么努力,可能一天也只能造一根针,当然更不可能20枚了。但是当制针业成为一个专门的产业时,不仅使得这成为一项专门的职业,而且也将这种工作分成若干道工序,使得每一项工序成为一项专门的职业。一个人抽铁丝,一个人将铁丝拉直,一个人截断,一个人削尖铁丝的一端,一个人磨另一端使得可以穿针头。制作针头,还需要两到三个不同的工艺。安装针头,表面涂白,最后的包装,都是专门的职业。这样,一枚针的制造分别需要18道工序。有些工厂,这18道工序分别由18个工人完成,有些工人也同时完成3~4道工序。我见过这样的小型工厂,只雇用了10个人,所以在这个工厂中,有几个工人兼任3到4项工序。像这样一个小型工厂,虽然贫穷,设备简陋,但是只要他们努力,他们每天也能生产出12磅针。这样下来,假设每磅有4000枚针,这10个人每天最少也能生产出48000枚针,也就是每人能生产出4800枚针。但是他们如果是单独工作,不是像这样分工合作,并且没有人掌握专业知识的情况下,可能他们只能最多生产出20枚,或者一枚也生产不出来。他们不但造不出由于适当分工合作而造成数量的1/480,就连1/4800可能也造不出来。


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